Underlying conditions known to significantly increase Covid-19 risks are the predominant threats associated with coronaviruses.
And as we are all very aware, vitamin and mineral deficiencies appear to play a very, very important role in the development of those underlying conditions, specifically Vitamin D and magnesium deficiencies.
Severity of COVID-19 patients appears to be predicted by their cortisol levels.
A study of 535 patients in London showed that doubled cortisol levels were associated with a 42 % increase in the risk of death.8 Patients who had a baseline cortisol concentration of 744 nmol/L or less (when admitted to a hospital), survived for at least 24 days (or longer). Patients whose cortisol level was more than 744 nmol/L survived for10 to 36 days.
Note that patients who were undergoing glucocorticoid treatments for an unrelated issue (such as IBD patients) were excluded from the study. However, as the researchers pointed out, these study results suggest that it might be risky for COVID-19 patients to attempt to self-medicate using steroids, due to the risk of increasing their cortisol levels.
And, as we (the Microscopic Colitis Foundation) have pointed out numerous times in the past, it's never a good idea to risk suppressing your immune system when facing a COVID-19 risk. Your immune system is your best weapon when fighting any virus-based risk.
Metformin may reduce the fatality risk for women who have COVID-19.
Metformin is a popular oral treatment for diabetes. Women who had filled their 90-day metformin prescriptions in the study of more than 6,200 adults who were hospitalized because of COVID-19 had at least a 20 % reduced risk of death.9 The study showed no similar benefit for men.
The CDC classifies obesity as a greater risk (among underlying conditions) than hypertension.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pointed out that individuals with a body mass index (BMI) over 40 had the greatest risk, whereas a BMI above 30 had a lower level (but still increased) risk.10 Heart conditions, sickle cell disease, type 2 diabetes, and pregnancy are also listed as underlying conditions that can lead to more serious outcomes for COVID-19 patients.
Recovery from COVID-19 may not convey immunity.
The same Medscape article referenced above stated that preliminary data show that antibody protection of recovered COVID-19 patients may be inconsistent. 33% of patients in one study showed no immunity to repeat infection risk. Hospitalized patients may have some degree of immunity after recovery, but more data is needed to verify the extent of immunity.
COVID-19 may cause brain damage.
Neurologists have found that COVID-19 patients who have shortness of breath, headache, or dizziness may have neurological issues that may not be discovered until after the patient is discharged from the hospital.11 Possible issues include stroke, psychosis, an altered mental state, and a dementia-like syndrome. Because of the risks, they suggest that hospitalized patients should have a neurological evaluation and an MRI scan of their brain before they are discharged. Longer-term studies of COVID-19 survivors who were either hospitalized or spent time in an intensive care unit show that respiratory dysfunction and reduced exercise capacity are common problems, in addition to the psychological problems of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and reduced quality of life in general.12
There's disagreement about the risk carried by airborne particles.
240 scientists have written a letter to the World Health Organization (WHO) asking the organization to revise its recommendations. They describe why they feel there is plenty of evidence that COVID-19 can be spread by tiny airborne droplets. The WHO has claimed that there is no documented evidence to support this position. This appears to be another case of failure to take action because of a lack of medical research. Apparently, the WHO does not believe in erring on the side of caution.
Preliminary evidence suggests that PPIs may increase COVID-19 risks.
Although the validity of the study has been questioned by a number of medical authorities because it contains some inconsistencies, it showed that people taking a single PPI daily had twice the risk of those not taking a PPI.13 The study also showed that taking two PPIs each day quadrupled the risk.
But this would appear to be a very logical effect, since PPIs are notorious for depleting magnesium. And as we have maintained all along, magnesium is critical for assuring a robust immune system.
1. Xiao, F., Tang, M., Zheng, X., Liu, Y., Li, X., & Shan, H. (2020). Evidence for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2. Gastroenterology, Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7130181/
2. Garg, M., Royce, S. G., Tikellis, C., Shallue, C., Batu, D., Velkoska, E., . . . Lubel, J. (2019). Imbalance of the renin–angiotensin system may contribute to inflammation and fibrosis in IBD: a novel therapeutic target? Gut, 69(5), 841-851. Retrieved from https://gut.bmj.com/content/69/5/841
3. Monteleone, G., & Ardizzone, S. (2020, March 26). Are patients with inflammatory bowel disease at increased risk for Covid-19 infection? Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/ecco-jcc/article/doi/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa061/5811674
4. Batlle, D., Wysocki, J., & Satchell, K. (2020). Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: a potential approach for coronavirus infection therapy? Clinical Science, 134(5), 543–545. Retrieved from https://portlandpress.com/clinsci/article-lookup/doi/10.1042/CS20200163
5. Wysocki, J., Ye, M., Rodriguez, E., González-Pacheco, F. R., Barrios, C., Evora, K., . . . Batlle, D. (2010). Targeting the degradation of angiotensin II with recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Hypertension, 55,90–98. Retrieved from https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.138420?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed&
6. Garg, M., Burrell, L. M., Velkoska, E., Griggs, K., Angus, P. W., Gibson, P. R., & Lubel, J., S. (2014). Upregulation of circulating components of the alternative renin-angiotensin system in inflammatory bowel disease: A pilot study. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1470320314521086?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov&
7. Jaszewski, R., Tolia, V., Ehrinpreis, M. N., Bodzin, J. H., Peleman, R. R., Korlipara, R., & Weinstock, J. V. (1990). Increased colonic mucosal angiotensin I and II concentrations in Crohn's colitis. Gastroenterology, 98(6), 1543-1548. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2159930
8. Tan, T., Khoo, B., Mills, E. G., Phylactou, M., Patel, B., Eng, P. C., & Dhillo, W. S. (2020, June 18). Association between high serum total cortisol concentrations and mortality from COVID-19. Retrieved from https://www.thelancet.com/journals/landia/article/PIIS2213-8587(20)30216-3/fulltext#%20
9. Lapid, N. (2020, June 24). Diabetes drug may lower COVID-19 death risk in women. Retrieved from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/932881
10. Syrek, R. (2020, June 25). COVID-19 update: New CDC guidance, antibody concerns. Retrieved from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/933014?src=mkm_covid_update_200625_mscpedit_&uac=95382HN&impID=2435127&faf=1
11. Giardina, V. (2020, June 29). COVID-19 update: Stages to brain damage, remdesivir pricing. Retrieved from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/933151?src=mkm_covid_update_200629_mscpedit_&uac=95382HN&impID=2440134&faf=1
12. Ahmed, H., Patel, K., Greenwood, D., Halpin, S., Lewthwaite, P., Salawu, A., & Sivan, M. (2020, April 22). Long-term clinical outcomes in survivors of coronavirus outbreaks after hospitalisation or ICU Admission: A systematic review and meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Retrieved from https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.16.20067975v1
13. McNamara, D. (2020, July 09). COVID-19 update: Possible PPI risk, co-infection in hospital. Retrieved from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/933697?src=mkm_covid_update_200709_mscpedit_&uac=95382HN&impID=2453772&faf=1